POLICE BODY CAMERAS AND LIABILITY INSURANCE: A PANACEA FOR POLICE MISCONDUCT
DR. NOEL OTU
DEPARTMENT OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE
THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS RIO GRANDE VALLEY
In the United States, police departments as well as President Obama want, and in
some cases require, officers to wear body cameras while on duty. The impact of
this requirement to improve accountability and reduce police misconduct is
highly controversial but centrally important to responsible policing. This paper
presents the arguments whether police body cameras have positively influenced
police officers’ behavior based on an extensive literature analysis of the issue.
Unfortunately, body cameras have failed to achieve these goals. The failure can
be attributed to vast structural advantages enjoyed by police officers in making
taxpayers (their employers) financially liable in misconduct cases. The current
study focuses on the effects of requiring police officers to wear body cameras,
purchase, and maintain occupational liability insurance in the belief in the theory
of deterrence. The author finds that the increasing rate of police misconduct
stems in large part from lack of financial liability/accountability on the part of
individual police officers. Police misconduct occurs in part because some normal
as well as psychologically unstable officers have opportunities to commit crimes
and are not deterred and additionally, because the judiciary chooses to water
down the exclusionary rule. This study reveals that requiring police officers to
wear body cameras and maintain occupational liability insurance is a panacea
Keywords: Body Camera, Liability Insurance, Police Misconduct,
This work is available online: Scholastic vol 1 issue 3 sep 2018-1-23
ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF OVEREMPHASIS ON THEORY
DELIVERY ON DEVELOPMENT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION
IN UNIVERSITIES IN RIVER STATE, NIGERIA
1 PROF. WEY AMAEWHULE
2 DR. OGWUNTE, PETER CLINTON (MABEN)
3 NWOBIKE ARUCHI
1, 2 & 3 DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS EDUCATION
RIVERS STATE UNIVERSITY, NKPOLU-OROWORUKWO, PORT
The study analysed effects of overemphasis on theory delivery on development of
entrepreneurship education in universities in Rivers State. The study adopted the
descriptive survey research design and was guided by one research question and
one null hypothesis tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population for the
study consists of all Deans, Head of Departments and Directors of
Entrepreneurship centers in the three universities in Rivers State. This
population was made up of 175 respondents. The entire population was used
because it was not too large. The research instrument was a questionnaire
developed by the researchers based on the insight gained from the review of
related literature. The instrument was designed on a 4-point likert rating scale. It
was validated by three experts. A correlation co-efficient of 0.88 was obtained
through the Cronbach Alpha Method. Data collected were analysed using mean
and standard deviation for research question, and z-test for the null hypothesis.
The finding showed that overemphasis on theory delivery has debilitating effect
on the development of entrepreneurship education in universities in Rivers State.
It was recommended that lecturers of undergraduate entrepreneurship education
programme should adopt a more practical skills approach in teaching
entrepreneurship education courses in universities.
Keywords: Analysis, Effects, Overemphasis On Theory Delivery,
Please obtain this work from: Scholastic vol 1 issue 3 sep 2018-24-30
PSYCHO-SOCIAL CHALLENGES TO PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION
IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA
OKEWORO STEPHEN NWALI (Ph.D)
DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY EDUCATION
EBONYI STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, IKWO
This study sought to investigate the psycho-social challenges to children’s
emotional and social well-being and disposition to acquire pre-primary education
in Ebonyi State. The psycho-social challenges in focus include those posed by
parents, teachers/care-givers, the community, government and natural factors.
Survey design was used to collect information required for the study from 240
primary school head teachers (162 males and 78 females). A 24-item
questionnaire was the instrument used to generate data. The data generated was
analyzed using Mean and Standard Deviation while the only hypothesis postulated
was tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test. The findings of the study
revealed that both parents, teachers/care-givers, the community, government and
natural factors pose psycho-social challenges that hinder children’s active
participation in learning activities in the school. Based on the findings, conclusion
was made followed by recommendations among which include that relevant
authorities and regulatory bodies should sensitize parents, teachers/care-givers
and government on the roles expected of them to boost children’s emotional and
social well-being necessary for their meaningful learning in the school. Also,
Education Quality Assurance Officers should be properly oriented on how to
mentor teachers on the correct teaching methods, skills and classroom
administration techniques that are in line with the national policy and children’s
learning needs and styles.
Keywords: Pre-Primary Education, Parents, Teachers Community and
Please obtain this work from here:Scholastic vol 1 issue 3 sep 2018-31-45
ESTABLISHING ITEM DISCRIMINATION INDICES OF MULTIPLE
CHOICE TEST FOR SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS’ MOCK
EXAMINATIONS IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA:
INSTRUMENT APPRAISAL FOR STUDENTS’ ASSESSMENT AND
1 ANAGBOGU GERMAN EFFA Ph.D
2 BICHENE, CAROL EBUTA
1 & 2 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS,
FACULTY OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR, NIGERIA.
The study investigated the item discrimination indices of multiple choice test
instruments for senior secondary schools’ mock examinations in Cross River
State-Nigeria, as part of a process for quality assurance, a basis for instrument
appraisal for students’ assessment and feedback. This is so because the quality of
an examination instrument and administration determines the quality of students
output. The population consisted of 14,739 students’ scripts for 2014 mathematics
mock examinations. Systematic sampling technique was used in selecting 1,475
scripts for the study. The researchers did not engage in constructing any
instrument as the study was aimed at validating the Mock Examinations
instrument developed and administered by Cross River State Ministry of
Education. Thus, the researchers visited Cross River State Ministry of Education,
collected 2014 Mathematics Mock Examinations Multiple choice and marked
scripts, all fully adopted for the study. The instrument consisted of 50 items, with 4
options each, one of which is the correct answer and the other three distracters.
Item analysis procedure was applied to determine discrimination indices. Results
of the analysis showed that; discrimination indices for most items in the
instrument were inconsistent with recommendation in extant literature. From the
results of the study, it was concluded that the State Ministry of Education’s level of
quality assurance in developing multiple choice items for senior secondary Mock
Examinations was seen to be poor. The implications of this results is that the test
instrument is of poor quality thus, it was recommended that test experts should
always be recruited to assist in development and creation of an item bank to
enable a dependable administration of Mock Examinations instruments in Cross
Keywords: discrimination, test instrument, students’ assessment and
feedback, quality assurance.
Please get this work via this: Scholastic vol 1 issue 3 sep 2018-46-53
IMPLEMENTATION OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION (UBE)
PROGRAM IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA. FOCUS: FREE,
COMPULSORY AND PROVISIONS OF INFRASTRUCTURE.
OGBUAGU, FRANCA UGO, Ph.D
EXAMINATION DEVELOPMENT CENTRE, EBONYI STATE
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, ABAKALIKI, NIGERIA.
The main purpose of the study was to assess the implementation of UBE in Ebonyi
State, in order to determine the extent of success achievement on some factors
such as free and compulsory education and infrastructural provision.
The study answered three research questions and tested three null hypotheses.
Descriptive survey design was adopted. The study was limited to all the state
owned primary and junior secondary schools in the state. The population of the
study comprised 10,524 primary school teachers and 5,485 junior secondary
school teachers, making the total population to be 16,009. Ten percent of the
population which is 1,600 was selected using the simple random sampling
technique. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire, designed
on a four point scale by the researcher. The text of internal consistency (reliability)
was conducted using cronbach alpha, and it yielded 0.97. data were analyzed
using mean, standard deviations were used to answer the research questions and
Z-text was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of
the study showed that UBE in Ebonyi State is to some extent free and compulsory.
There were inadequate infrastructures in the schools. Based on these findings the
follow recommendations were made; Government at all levels should enforce the
free and compulsory universal Basic Education, by evoking the necessary
sanctions on defaulters as contained in the UBE Act, 2004; among other things.
Keywords: Free, Compulsory, Education and Universal Basic Education.
Please follow the link: Scholastic vol 1 issue 3 sep 2018-54-70 to get the whole work
EVALUATION OF VALUES AND ETHICS OF PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA
1 IGWE LIGA E.
2 NWOSE LIVINUS N.
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL STUDIES,
EBONYI STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, IKWO, NIGERIA
This article addresses the most important yet least investigated issues in public
Administration: Values and Ethics. What differences do values and ethics make
in the life and behavior of men and women in pursuit of public sector service
careers in Nigeria? Indeed, most of the reported cases of inefficiencies,
corruption, inertia ineptitude and general backwardness of our public service
institution are largely attributed to lack of proper values and ethical behavior
required to generate the desired change. The essence of this paper is to
investigate the roles which values and administrative ethics play in public
Administration in Nigeria; the evolution of ethical consideration in public
Administration and what have you. If one may ask, does values and ethics
pedagogy matter? And if it does, what are the key variables or influences that are
brought to bear on the ethical outlooks and behavior of public administration
practitioners in pursuit of public services career in this country. Conversely,
what factors influence or diminish the desired outcomes of values and ethics in
Nigeria? It was discovered that presently there are institutional mechanisms in
place such as EFCC and ICPC in place to help enforce values and ethical
behaviours in Nigeria public Administration. We evaluated these institutions and
appreciated their efforts so far, and hope that they will survive and continue to
doggedly fight corruption head-long to enthrone enviable values and ethical
behaviours in the conduct of government business, as obtains in advanced
democracies of Europe and America. In carrying out their functions, these
institutions should ensure that there are no sacred cows. They should not be
selective but frontal in their fight against corruption and unethical conducts in
Nigeria public Administration.
Keywords: Values, Ethics, Public and Administration.
Please get this work from here: Scholastic vol 1 issue 3 sep 2018-71-84
CHILD EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: HINDRANCES AND LEGAL
1 2 UGO IBIAM AND OROGWU ALOYSIUS ALO
1 & 2 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS .
EBONYI STATE COLLAGE OF EDUCATION IKWO,
EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA
3 NWODE NGOZI
PRIMARY EDUCATION DEPARTMENT,
EBONYI STATE COLLAGE OF EDUCATION, IKWO, NIGERIA
Nigerian children are facing problems in their educational career due to their
parents’ inability to take care for them because of their separation as husband
and wife, and the ineffectiveness of Nigerian government. The major hindrance
that is obstructing child education in Nigeria is uncontrollable corruption that is
rampant among Nigerian leaders. This is strongly affecting the standard of
education across the nation.
Therefore, this paper examined and discussed the legal provisions provided for a
child to have access to education under Nigerian Laws and causes of educational
hindrances in Nigeria. The standard of education in Nigeria, facilities, and
quality of teachers were also examined in the paper. The study applied
The paper was concludede by enunciating useful suggestions as solution to the
child education hindrance in Nigeria in the best interest of children and the
nation at large.
Keywords: Child, Child Education, Legality of Child’s Education and
Please obtain this work from here: Scholastic vol 1 issue 3 sep 2018-85-92-2-8
TOWARDS ENHANCING COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IN
NIGERIAN INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES THROUGH THE
COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING APPROACH: A FOCUS
ON THE IGBO IN THE DIASPORA
MONICA NNENNE OKAFOR, PhD
SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES
EBONYI STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
The focus of this paper was on enhancing the communicative competence of
speakers of Nigerian indigenous languages in a non-native speaking environment
especially the Igbo language. The primary object was to arrest the erosion of
competence in the Igbo language among the Igbo in the diaspora. The paper
advanced its thesis using the analytical method and library research methods,
focusing mainly on reviews and analysis of relevant examples of possible real life
activities. The theoretical framework of analysis of data was the
communicative/functional theory. The paper concluded that applying the
communicative language teaching strategies in teaching the Igbo in diaspora
would address the deficiency of the learners in their ability to actually perform in
the language in real-life situations. The paper recommended the training and retraining of Igbo language teachers both in the home and foreign lands to be
facilitators rather than transmitters of learning, among other recommendations.
Keyword: Communicative Competence, Language, Diaspora And
Communicative Language Teaching Strategies.
Please obtain this work from here: Scholastic vol 1 issue 3 sep 2018-93-102
THE AHISTORICALLY MINDED SOCIETY, THE NIGERIAN
NWEZE REUBEN N.
DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY
EBONYI STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, IKWO.
The term a historical may be understood to mean lacking in historical sense or
tradition. This means in practice that the person or group of persons concerned
do not exhibit in their thoughts and actions a sense or consciousness of their
historical past and the influence it should have on those thoughts and actions.
Man from the moment he became a thinking and reflecting human being, homo
sapiens, has tended to refer to his past experience in deciding on his present and
future line of action. He has, on the whole, tended to be guided the desired results.
Hence the old saying that: Experienceta decet (Experience is the best teacher or
teaches) history, the embodiment of experience is a storehouse of guiding
principles to and concrete examples of proper or wise human conduct. In deed,
man did not always act by the guide of his past experience. This might be due to a
number of factors. Firstly, the actor might be so blinded by the object of his desire
or ambition, the desire to enjoy in the here and now, that he would not want to
know of what might follow after. In other words, he would not heed the voice of
reason if that voice dictated a course different from his cherished objective and his
desired line of action. Another contributory factor is the assumption or belief that
he, the present actor, might be luckier than those others before him who met with
unhappy consequences. Another factor is faulty analysis of the issue at hand. This
could arise from the intellectual shortcomings of the analysist, inadequacy of data
relevant to the analysis or even external factors exercising undue influence on the
Keywords: Levels of Historical Consciousness, AHistorical Behaviour. The
Nigeria Case, History and Historian’s Contribution to Ahistorical Behaviour
and Historical Mindedness.
Please obtain the full work here: Scholastic vol 1 issue 3 sep 2018-103-114
ASSESSMENT OF “STUDY –SKILLS KNOWLEDGE” OF SENIOR
SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS, FOR IMPROVED ACADEMIC
1 ODO EMMANUEL O.
IKORO, STANLEY I, Ph.D
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS
EBONYI STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, IKWO, NIGERIA.
The study assessed the knowledge of the study-skills of senior secondary students
in Ebonyi State, for improved academic performance. Four research questions
and one null hypothesis guided the study. Survey research design was adopted for
the study. A total of 1,831 students were randomly selected for the study out of the
population of 28,621 senior secondary school students. The instrument for data
collection was a questionnaire on the study-skills developed by the researchers
and validated by the experts. The data collected was analyzed using percentage,
mean and standard deviation for the research questions and z-test statistics for the
hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. Based on the results, the study revealed
that most senior secondary school students have no information on the studyskills, have no knowledge of study-skills, and are not aware of the types of studyskills. In view of the above, all the students overwhelmingly agreed with the suggested study guides that will improve academic Performance of the students.
The paper recommends that Government and Stakeholders in Education Sector
should adopt the study among other things.
Keywords: Study-skill, study guide, study-habit, types of study skills
Obtain the whole work from here: Scholastic vol 1 issue 3 sep 2018-115-124
PRIMER IN RADICAL CRIMINOLOGY: CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES ON CRIME, POWER & IDENTITY (4TH ED.). BOULDER, COLORADO: LYNNE RIENNER PUBLISHERS, 2010, 374 PAGES. BY MICHAEL J. LYNCH, PH.D. AND RAYMOND MICHALOWSKI
REVIEWED BY: ALABA OLUDARE, Ph.D.
DEPARTMENT OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE
MISSISSIPPI VALLEY STATE UNIVERSITY
ITTA-BENA, MS 38941
Radical criminology started in the 1960s as an attempt to explain criminal behavior and the justice system with the use of class conflict. The notion of radical criminology later expanded to include race, gender and culture as means of understanding crime and the justice system. According to Lynch and Michalowski, pre-existing theories do not sufficiently address the recent realities of crime and justice as impacted by the variables of class, race, gender and culture. Effective studies must question the common beliefs that: (1) men are more likely to commit crime than women (ii) minorities are disproportionately represented in the criminal justice system (iii) crime is more prevalent among the lower class (iv) society criminalizes some harmful behaviors while tolerating other bad conducts (v) there are differences in law and justice practice among nations (vi) less crimes occur in less punitive societies (vii) separate mechanisms are used for controlling and reacting to street crimes as opposed to white collar crimes.
Radical criminology attempts to fill a void that exists in orthodox criminological philosophies from Beccaria and others scholars who did not adequately exhaust the variations in people, societies and cultures in their efforts to explain crime. Primer in Radical Criminology seeks to explore certain mysteries unraveled by anthropology and sociology that something beyond human control, shapes human conduct or at least dictates available choices because crime rates differ from place to place. Orthodox criminologists assume that individuals with criminal tendencies cluster to a larger extent in some countries than others. This idea could be interpreted as suggesting that the high rate of crime in the U.S.A. is a pointer to the presence of a more dysfunctional population than in Canada for instance. Conversely, radical criminology uses the economy, social structure and culture to explain the differences in motivations for committing crime rather than the differences in people. More so, theories that focus on the social structure such as opportunity theory have failed to address the impact of class, race, gender and culture on the role of desire or opportunity to commit crime. Primer explains how these socio structural factors influence the distribution of opportunity to satisfy socially established desires which results in crime; the book also explains why some harmful acts are more penalized than other similarly or more harmful acts. For example, certain offences including robbery, knowingly marketing tobacco or prostitution causing little harm are more criminalized than white collar crimes leading to huge financial loss and thousands of death.
The authors use primer to build on older theories in criminology and to explain emerging trends such as terrorism, environmental and state crimes in an attempt to promote the role of justice in the world. The book is divided into thirteen chapters excluding the preface, acknowledgments, biographies, references and index. Chapter one defines radical criminology and identifies approaches to understanding criminology; and behavioral varieties. It ties radical criminology to a historical and political context involving social forces that led to keen interest in Marxist invasion of the academia. Chapter two historically traces the intellectual context of radical criminology to Marxism, explaining that capitalism led to class conflicts in societies with structural factors that engendered crime. The social class is perceived in terms of the distribution of economic, political and cultural power, and it is virtually impossible to understand issues of crime in isolation from their social and historical context. Chapter three deals with law and justice in relation to the state. Upholding the concepts of structuralism and instrumentality of control, radicals discredit the traditional law making process of consensus postulated by Emile Durkheim. Chapter four reveals that the radical criminologists perceive crime as a socially construed phenomenon. The authors claim that the definition of crime is arbitrary and subject to the whims and caprices of politicians; thus, underlining some similarities with anomie and labeling theories.
While Chapter five explains how capitalism causes crime by placing emphasis on profit making. Social factors including the means of production aimed at amassing wealth have conversely led to the increase in criminal opportunity for some classes by gender and race. Chapter six focuses on the explanation of crime from a perspective of the political economy, structure and identity. Every crime is traceable to an economic motive: ranging from the choice between starvation and crime observable in the interaction between unemployment, recession, unpaid labor and crime. All of the above factors impact the races and gender differently in terms of available criminal opportunity.
Chapter seven explains the possibility of radicalizing orthodox theories of criminology such as strain, control, life course analysis and the theory of cultural and social capital. According to… Robert Merton’s theory of anomie, social structures pressurize some members of society to choose illegality rather than legality. This view is believed to be consistent with the radical thought of dysfunction of goals and means propelled by the distinctions in race, class and gender. The structural inequality of Messner and Rosenfeld and the life course theory all reveal negative impacts on race, class and gender. Orthodox theories may only be effective to explain crime if revised in terms of race, class, gender and culture as in the world today.
In Chapter eight, the authors favor the interdisciplinary approach and urge criminologists to evolve with the changing world in order to develop methods for combating industrial pollution, environmental hazards and global warming problems which significantly affects the poor, women and minorities above others. Green criminology is explicated as a proposal to examine and propound solutions to environmental harms, justice and laws as they affect class, race and gender. Chapter nine examines the dangers of terrorism and state crimes where acts of the western world to consolidate their position results in resistance by other nations, thus promoting violence and victimization. Radical criminology is needed to curb the violent trend by shifting the focus from petty offences to those with more serious consequences to mankind.
Chapter ten emphasizes that a concept of radical policing with a national culture of control and particular concern for how race, crime and gender is affected in the construction of crime must replace the orthodox policing idea which enables the rich to dominate the poor, whites, males and capital to dominate minorities, females and labor respectively. Chapter eleven contends that historically based structural inequalities led to different laws for different groups as is the case with slavery and war on drugs. In Chapter twelve, the radicals unlike traditionalists interpret punishment as an engrained tool to control some segments of the society. Chapter thirteen criticizes the conservative ideology for racial, gender and class inequality and denounces the tougher approach in an age where crime is statistically and comparatively decreasing; finally, advocating for a shift in focus to crime prevention, reorientation of the socio political economy and corporate or institutional accountability.
In conclusion, “Primer in Radical Criminology “ has successfully attempted to merge the orthodox traditional thinking with the contemporary realities in a way that highlights areas of similarity in the thought process; yet clearly portrays the distinctions in approaches for a better understanding of the issues of crime, causation and criminal behavior in the world today. The book also suggests a framework for an interdisciplinary approach to understanding crime and justice through its stance on green criminology, touching on environmental crimes and justice research, state crimes including terrorism, global warming and the end of the advent of oil. It is a must read for every student of criminology. Lynch and Michalowsky were able to drive home the point that the only way that a nation known for her commitment to democracy and human rights can move forward and reduce crime is to embrace significant changes that will eradicate the age old history of inequality.
Michael J. Lynch
Specialty: Green Criminology, Political Economy, Social Control of Environmental Crime
University of South Florida Faculty
Michael J. Lynch is a professor of criminology and associated faculty member in the School of Global Sustainability at the University of South Florida. He is recognized for research in green criminology, radical criminology, corporate crime, and racial biases in criminal justice processes. Lynch played an influential role in founding green criminology. He has published 19 books on various topics. He was the 2011 recipient of the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Division on Critical Criminology of the American Society of Criminology.
He is a Regents’ Professor of Criminal Justice at the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Northern Arizona University. His research areas include Criminological Theory; International Human Rights; Immigration and Border Policy; Social Justice; Corporate; Environmental and Political Crime. Recent publications include; State Crime in the Global Age (with William Chambliss and Ronald Kramer) and State-Corporate Crime: Wrongdoing at the Intersection of Business and Government (with Ronald Kramer).