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ADAPTIVNESS OF THE NEW WHATSAPP SETTINGS FOR TEACHING, LEARNING AND COLLABORATION. AMONG HIGHER INSTITUTIONS IN SUB- REGIONAL AFRICA 1 Anireh, Uchenna N. 2 Amadi, Eleanor A. 3 Nwobike, Aruchi 1, 2 & 3 Department of Business Education, Rivers State University of Science And Technology, Nkpolu-oroworukwo, Port Harcourt. Abstract The wide use of social media in institutions of higher learning and its e-learning potentials of the technology are making educators to look at models social network model to be used to support and improve educational practice for human capacity building. This study examines the use of WhatsApp instant messaging media for learning, support and building research collaboration among two universities in Rivers State; namely, Rivers State University (RSU) and Ignatius Ajuru University of Education (IAUOE). To represent sub-regional Africa. This model is designed to be used by distant learning communities or groups and therefore could be deployed across West African Sub-regions. The study adopted descriptive survey method, using questionnaire to elicit responses from 100 randomly sampled respondents, 50 from each university. Questionnaire instrument titled ?WhatsApp an Innovative Research Support Tool for Collaboration in Higher Institutions? (WIRSTCHI) was used for data collection. The instrument validated and test for reliability was conducted using Cronbach Alpha Coefficient with an index of 0.84. Mean and Standard Deviation was used to analyze the data obtained from the respondents while hypotheses were tested with z-test at 0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed that WhatsApp if well modeled could provide innovative research support tools among institutions of higher learning and enhance learning efforts across West African Sub-region. Recommendations were made, that suggested among other things the development of different usable models and creating awareness on when and where to use them for greater effectiveness. Keywords: Whatsapp, Social Media, Adaptive, Teaching-learning Collaboration please access the whole work here: EDU VOL 2, ISSUE 1-1-13 THE PLACE OF NOMADIC FARMING AS A SOURCE OF IMPROVING FOOD SECURITY IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA Dr. Nwose D. I. Department of Agricultural Education Ebonyi College of Education Ikwo, Ebonyi State, Nwose R. N. Department of Animal Science, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu Alike Ikwo Abstract This paper appraises the operation of nomadic farming using English language as a tool instead of Arabic language to achieve the great success in implementation of nomadic farming among the Fulani nomadic farmers. These farming is adopted by the people who are not permanent residence of an area and keep on moving along forest land hunting and have their food. Their main resources is from the forest or wild life. They rear ducks, goats, sheep and various cattle in herd, growing and take with them their cattle and crops from one place to another whenever they travel. Their movement is based on season (www.quora.com). Despite the fact that the state spend a lot money to improve agriculture, the response by these nomadic farmers is still low. The low nature of their production result from many factors that hinder their steady progress. Among them is religion which has reckoned with modern sphere of life. They mostly practice Muslim and have major interest in Arabic language than English language. Within them, they fear that they may be converted to Christianity if they adopt it. Since some of them have come to understand that the only way to contribute in the government of the state is to receive the knowledge to enable them fight for their basic rights, the state government should try to improve nomadic farming and their literacy level through introduction with Arabic teaching to the nomadic farmers. Keywords: Nomadic Farming, security, Arabic and English Languages Get the whole work from here: EDU VOL 2, ISSUE 1-14-17 RELIGIOUS EDUCATION AND NATION BUILDING Nweze Reuben Njoba Department of History School of Arts and Social Sciences Ebonyi State College of Education Ikwo Abstract After the Nigerian Civil War in 1970, the Federal government took over schools founded by religious groups because education was thought to be a huge government venture and no longer a private enterprise. Prior to this time, Nigerian leaders benefitted from the free education offered by missionaries, which became the bedrock for Nigerian nationalism and independence. Most people argue that the sudden takeover of the schools by the government brought about the collapse of education that was hitherto reputable for high standards in learning and morality. Hence, the call for return of mission schools by pressure groups became rife. Conversely, in the wake of the return of mission schools some states in the federation and stakeholders have expressed divergent views, citing denominational sentiments, tribal prejudices and unhealthy rivalry among citizens as problems that could militate against national integration and development. This article aims at examining the divergent views in the light of the role of religion education (RE) in nation building and integration. Key words: Religion education, Mission schools, Nigeria, nation-building, nation-integration. Obtain the whole work from here: EDU VOL 2, ISSUE 1-18-34 CONUNDRUM OF RESTRUCTURING NIGERIA FEDERATION: A HISTORICAL DISCOURSE. Igwe Eugene Nwigwe Department of History, Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo. Abstract The problem of restructuring Nigeria is not that the government of the day especially at the federal level does not understand the meaning and its advantages, but the issue is who is it going to favour or who it would disfavour. Asituation where those who feel that the status quo is to their detriment are calling on the federal government to restructure the country so as to bring about equity, equality and equitable distribution of appointments, opportunities and infrastructural development. The other group who see nothing wrong about the present arrangement are strongly opposing the idea. However, the fact remains that every system or institution established by human being is always subject to amendment, change or rearrangement. Restructuring of Nigeria political system is a necessity if the stakeholders (executive, legislatives and judicial arms) in the country are sincere and have the interest of this nation at heart. For the sake of this paper, I will define some concepts, why restructuring in necessary, where or area to restructure and finally recommendations. keywords: Restructure, Federalism and Nigeria Get The whole work here: EDU VOL 2, ISSUE 1-35-37 EFFECTS OF GUIDED DISCOVERY ON KNOWLEDGE RETENTION AND ACHIEVEMENT IN CHEMISTRY AMONG STUDENTS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN SOUTH EAST, NIGERIA. 1 Amadi, Victoria Chinyere (Ph.D) 2 Ugorji Clifford (Ph.D) 3 Felicia Onuabuchi King-agboto (Ph.D) 1, 2 & 3 Department of Physical Science Education Imo State University, Owerri Abstract This study investigated the effect of guided discovery and lecture methods on students’ knowledge retention and achievement in chemistry in tertiary institution. Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. Quasiexperimental design of two comparism group method was adopted. A sample of 60 students was randomly drawn from the population of one hundred and twenty four (124) year three tertiary institution students of Department of Chemistry education Imo State University Owerri and Federal College of Education Umunze. The instrument used for data collection was Chemistry Achievement Test which was validated by experts. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Kuder Richardson 21 (Kr-21) correlation method and a reliability coefficient of 0.84 was established for the study. The data generated were analyzed using mean and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The study concluded that the guided discovery method had more effect on students’ academic achievement and level of knowledge retention than lecture method. Recommendations were made among others including organizing inservice training for teachers on the effective method,(using activity based methods like guided discovery method) for teaching chemistry in tertiary institutions. Keywords : effects, guided discovery, knowledge retention, and chemistry student. Get the whole work from here: EDU VOL 2, ISSUE 1-38-50 CONTEXT EVALUATION OF UNDERGRADUATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION DEGREE PROGRAMME OF UNIVERSITIES IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA 1 Amadi, E.A. Ph.D 2 Ogwunte, P.C., Ph.D 3 Nwobike, Aruchi 1, 2 & 3 Department of Business Education, Rivers State University Abstract The purpose of the study was to determine context evaluation of undergraduate entrepreneurship education degree programmes of universities in Rivers state. The study adopted the CIPP model of evaluation developed by Stufflebeen (1971). The population for the study consist of 1250 respondents made up of 68 lecturers and 1182 undergraduate students of entrepreneurship education degree programme. A sample size of 375 denoting 30% of the population was randomly selected and used for the study. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire with 14 itemstatements. The instruments were validated by three experts. The consistency and reliability of the instrument used was assured using the split-half method to determine the degree of reliability which yielded a correlation co-efficient of 0.72. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, while Z-test inferential statistics was used to test the null hypotheses. The findings of the study revealed that the objectives and quality of students at the point of entry in terms of admission requirement in the chosen universities are adequate and meet the required minimum academic standard of the National Universities Commission. Based on the discussion of findings, it was recEDU VOL 2, ISSUE 1-93-115ommended amongst others that universities offering undergraduate entrepreneurship education degree programmes should ensure that the admission policy of the programmes is maintained. Key words: Context Evaluation, Evaluation, Entrepreneurship Education. Obtain the whole work from here: EDU VOL 2, ISSUE 1-51-60 TOWARDS RETRAINING OF PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS, ON CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES FOR STANDARDS IN SCHOOLS IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA. Dr. Ikoro, Stanley I. Department of Educational Foundations Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo. Abstract This study was carried out to examine how retraining of primary school teachers on Evaluation (continuous assessment) techniques can effectively enhance comparability of standard between primary schools in Nigeria. The population of the study consisted 50 primary schools in Ebonyi State. While, the sample comprised of 500 teachers selected through stratified sampling techniques. The researcher used a descriptive survey design for the study to Chance generalization of findings. Three research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. The instrument for data collection titled Retraining of Teachers on Continuous Assessment Techniques (ROTOCAT) questionnaire was developed by the researcher was face and content validated by three experts in Ebonyi State University Abakaliki. Cronbach -alpha was used to establish the reliability of the instrument which yielded 0.83. Percentage, mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the research questions, while t-test was used to test the hypothesis, at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that the primary school teachers have very low information and knowledge about the objectives of continuous assessment. Equally, they lack the computation skills in terms of grading and reporting. In view of the above, the paper recommended among other things that Federal and State governments should as a matter of urgency organize biannual seminars and workshops for primary school teachers on the development and implementation of continuous assessment; this is in addition to supplying of curriculum modules on assessment to primary schools. Keywords: Retraining, primary school teachers, standard, evaluation Obtain the whole work from here: EDU VOL 2, ISSUE 1-61-68 SCHOOL PLANT AND TEACHING OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SUBJECTS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AFIKPO EDUCATION ZONE OF EBONYI STATE 1 Akpagu Cletus I. Department of Christian Religious Studies Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo 2 Dr. Uwaoma Akwu Ude Department of Social Studies Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo Abstract The research study investigated the availability of school plants and success of entrepreneurial subjects in secondary schools in Afikpo Educational Zone of Ebonyi State. The design of the study was a descriptive survey which had a population of Ninety five (95) principals and the sample wad s purposive sample ad the entire Ninety five (95) was converted to be sample. The instrument used for the study ws a 10 item structured questionnaire titled school plant and the success of the entrepreneurial subject’s questionnaire (SPESQ). Two (2) research questions and two (2) hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance and mean was used in answering the research questions while Ztest was used in testing the hypotheses. The finding reveled that only few schools had listed school plants and the available ones were not used because of lack of subject teachers in the subjects it was recommended that Government provide enough equipment and personnel ready before introducing any innovating curriculum in her schools. Keywords: School Plant, Entrepreneurship Get the whole work from here: EDU VOL 2, ISSUE 1-69-75 THE ROLE OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN PROMOTING PEACE AND SECURITY EDUCATION IN NIGERIA 1 Dr. (Mrs) Louisa Oby Unugo 1 Department of Social Studies Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo, Ebonyi State Nigeria. 2 Onwuasuanya Sabina 2 Department of Social Studies College Of Education (Technology) Umunze, Anambra State Abstract This paper argues that peace and security education is a critical factor for sustainable peace, security and national development especially in a region prone to conflict and insecurity. This paper goes on to state that there is clear absence of peace in Nigeria manifesting in various forms of violence ? physical, emotional, psychological, structural and cultural violence. This paper posits that education should create a movement of peace activists that are conscious to change the violent situation in Nigeria to culture of peace, characterized by respect for life, liberty, justice, tolerance, solidarity, human-rights and equality between men and women. Also some of the benefits of peace and security education were highlighted. This article hinge on descriptive survey design. About 120 (60 males and 60 females)principals where used from Ebonyi North Education zone Abakaliki. Two research questions and one null hypothesis where used. Mean and standard deviation where used to answer the research questions. While T-test was used to test the hypothesis. Some recommendations were made such as: poverty which is the major challenge of development and which impacts on other forms of social ills can be eradicated through employment and support to citizens to engage in small scale businesses. The government should enhance the economic, social and political opportunities available to people to make them come out of poverty. This will evolve knowledge improvement, entrepreneurial development across all states of the federation, in organization of co-operatives, and associations. Keywords: Social Studies, Peace and Security Education Please get the whole work from here: EDU VOL 2, ISSUE 1-76-85 TASK NUMBER AND COGNITIVE LEVELS AS DETERMINANTS FOR ITEM DIFFICULTY 1 Dr. Kingsley Chimah Obi 2 Ugorji, Clifford Ph.D 1&2 Department Of Primary Education Studies Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education, Owerri Abstract The paper addresses task numbers and cognitive levels as determinants of item facility indices. Task number is a new concept in item analysis and in conjunction with cognitive levels account for much item facility indices. Null hypotheses were rejected. The correlation coefficient between item facility indices and task number as well as that between item facility indices and cognitive levels were both statistically significant. The coefficient of multiple correlations between item facility indices on the one hand and task numbers and cognitive levels on the other hand is even more statistically significant. The paper therefore recommends that task numbers and cognitive levels should be given much consideration as determinants in item difficulty. Key words: Task number, Cognitive level, Item difficulty Get the whole work from here:? EDU VOL 2, ISSUE 1-86-92 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AND INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY OF BUSINESS STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA Ajiwo, Isaac Peter Department of Business Education, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt Abstract This study was motivated by the frequently observed negligence of the use of Information and Communication Technology facilities as an instructional material for Business Studies in secondary schools in Rivers State. The researcher adopted descriptive survey design. Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. Two sets of structured questionnaire formed the research instrument. The questionnaire were administered to the 42teachers and389 students drawn from the target population. The research questions were analyzed with mean and standard deviation, while the hypotheses were tested with t-test statistics. The results revealed that information and communication technology facilities were not available for the instructional delivery of Business Studies in junior secondary schools in Rivers State, ICT facilities were not utilized in the instructional delivery of junior secondary Business Studies in Rivers State, ICT facilities were not adequate for instructional delivery of Business Studies in Rivers State and that ICT facilities were not accessible for the instructional delivery of Business Studies in Rivers State. Conclusion drawn from the study was that the authorities concerned for public secondary education, irrespective of its size, have a duty to ensure that ICT facilities are made available and adequately utilized and accessible by teachers and students in junior secondary schools in Rivers State for instructional delivery. Based on the findings the researcher recommended that ICT facilities should be included in the secondary school curriculum as Business Studies instructional material, and also be made available, adequate and compulsory application in the instructional delivery of Business Studies in secondary schools in Rivers State. Keywords: Information And Communication Technology, Business Education, And Instructional Delivery Get the whole work here: EDU VOL 2, ISSUE 1-93-115 IMPROVING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE EDUCATION THROUGH, ?ACTIVITY STUDENT EXPERIMENTAND IMPROVISEPUPILS DO SEE AND IMPROVE (ASEI-PDSI) APPROACH? IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA. 1 Agbo, Chinelo Dorathy 2 Nwode Ngozi N. 1 & 2 Department: Primary Education Ebonyi State College Of Education Ikwo Abstract This paper examines how activity based approach can improve the teaching and learning of mathematics and science education in our primary schools. It starts by explaining the meaning of activity and some definitions given to mathematics and Science Education by some scholars in the field. It goes further to elucidate on ASEI?PDSI overview, ASEI-PDSI enhancing teaching, difficult nature of science, tools, problems of fostering ASEI-PDSI, ways of improving mathematics and science teaching through ASEI-PDSI approach and implication for education are also discussed. The paper finally recommends among others that teachers of mathematics and science education should encourage and be friendly to the pupils and students or learners to be active and creative. Key words: Mathematics, Science, School, Primary Education, ASEI-PDSI Get the whole work here: EDU VOL 2, ISSUE 1-116-128 RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF FORMATIVE EVALUATION STRATEGIES ON STUDENTS MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT IN NIGEIAN SETTING EMMANUEL ETTA EKURI & AGBAJI, JOSEPH UGBAGHA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS, UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR, CALABAR Abstract This study examined the relative effectiveness of formative evaluation strategies on students? Mathematics achievement among secondary school students in Ikom Education zone, in Cross River state, Nigeria. Quasi-experimental design using pre-test, treatment, post-test design with ANCOVA as post-hoc control was adopted for the study. Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) with a test retest reliability coefficient of .70, was used to collect data from 160 secondary school two students (66 males and 94 females) drawn from 4 intact classes in 4 different public coeducational schools through? a combination of purposive and random sampling techniques. Data analyses were done with Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with pre test as covariates. Key findings indicate that feedback/remediation group was the best in the teaching of mathematics followed by peer evaluation strategies and then self evaluation while the conventional method was least in bringing about high academic achievement from the students. Gender and Students? ability had no significant effect on students? academic achievement in mathematics. It was recommended that formative evaluation strategies should be adopted for teaching and learning of not just mathematics but other sciences and related subjects. Educational institutions vested with training of teachers should therefore retrain mathematics teachers with formative approaches. Key words: Self-evaluation, Peer evaluation, Feedback/remediation, Formative Evaluation???? Strategies, Mathematics Achievement Test Please get the full work from here:?ijaes 1 THE EFFECT OF TRUANCY ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN EBONYI STATE REV. JAMES, A. EKPE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS, EBONYI STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, IKWO. Abstract A descriptive survey was used with a sample size of 30 males and 30 female respondents. Questionnaire was developed and used for data collection while the data were analyzed using frequency, percentage and cumulative percentage. This study intended to investigate the effects of truancy in the academic performance of secondary schools students in Ebonyi State. The findings indicated that a high percentage of the respondents agreed that truancy is a talent base for poor academic performance among students. Then this became a wakeup call to both the Government and educational policy makers to define our education policies and strengthen school discipline. In line with the current position of Ebonyi State Government, parents and guardians whom their children do not go to school should collaborate with the Government to nip in the bud this ugly trend. Keywords: Truancy, Academic performance and Secondary school students. Please access this work from here:?ijaes 2 INFLUENCE OF PEER GROUP ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT?S STUDY HABITS IN KEFFI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA ?UGBE L.U ?DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS, NASARAWA STATE UNIVERSITY, KEFFI Abstract This research looked at the influence of peer on secondary school students study habits and examination malpractice in Keffi local government area. A descriptive design was used. Six (6) research questions and research hypotheses was used to guide this work. The pilot study was 30 randomly selected from the two local governments; sample size consists of 370 respondents from the total population of 24,300 secondary students. A self-developed questionnaire titled ?Peer Groups and Study Habits Questionnaire (PGASHQ) was administered to respondents. Data collected were analyzed using percentages and chi square. The Major Findings were; peer group has significant influence on student?s use of library and peer group has significant influence on student?s use of time table Keywords: peer group, study habits, secondary school students, academic performance Access this whole work from here:?ijaes 3 LEADERSHIP STYLES IN SPORTS MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA?EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION ?ALOR, ROSELINE ?DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL HEALTH EDUCATION EBONYI STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, IKWO. Abstract Leadership style in sports management are affected by number of coaches/captains, and supervisor?s factors including the personality of? the coach, knowledge, experience and competence in sports delivery, coaches management style and his ability to create a conducive sporting environment that makes for meaningful learning in the absence of fear, stress and tension. Of the many coaches variable in the field of play, the coach?s management styles can be said to have the greatest influence. This paper therefore, examines the various management styles adopted by coaches in their effort to reach the sports men/women with sporting knowledge and information. The paper then concludes that management styles in coaching include the autocratic, the democratic and the laissaz-faire style. It further states that the characteristics of each management styles are presented along with the possible effect with each style on the sportsmen. Based on the conclusion, the paper recommends that good sport leaders/ Coaches have good sporting knowledge and experience; they should be democratic in their sports management. Keywords: Leadership style, Sports and management Access the whole of this work from?ijaes 4 INFLUENCE OF WELFARE SERVICES ON TEACHER?S JOB SATISFACTION AND PERFORMANCE ?GUDA SIMON TERZUNGWE.,1 AND UJAH AONDOAKAA BEATRICE2 ?1DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS AND GENERAL STUDIES, 2UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, MAKURDI, BENUE STATE ?Abstract Staff welfare is paramount in any social organization. The welfare of educational staff especially teachers is essential for any meaningful educational attainment. Since teachers constitute the core element of educational personnel, they require proper care both in the hands of government and school administrators. This paper discussed job satisfaction of teachers which include recognition of their efforts, achievement from the job, assigned responsibilities and their professional growth. The influence of welfare services on teachers? performance as well as the role of school administration in the provision of welfare services were is also discussed. It is the contention of the paper that welfare services were identified in the paper and others be provide for teachers to enable them perform effectively. Keywords: Staff welfare, Job satisfaction, and Performance This work maybe accessed from?ijaes 5 DECISIONS RELEVANT IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM ?UDUMA, EMMANUEL OGBONNIA (Ph.D)., AND NWODE, NGOZI EZINNE DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY EDUCATION EBONYI STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION IKWO. Abstract Mangers at every level must not make difficult financial decisions continuously. Analytical tools or techniques are important in decision making, analysis, planning and control. Aspects of financial management are performed by most managers today, and it is important that mangers be able to apply analytical techniques to their specific financial decision. To this end, this paper focus on the definitions of some terms such as finance, management, financial management, and decision involved in financial management. It equally concludes that in financial management, every manager has to take three major financial decisions which include investment decision, financial decision and dividend decision. Based on the conclusion therefore, the paper recommended that managers should always make wise decision that will enhance successful investment, financial profitability and high dividend to enable organization or institution to sustain longer into their business operations Key words: finance, management, and financial management This work may be accessed from?ijaes 6 INNOVATIVE MEASURES FOR TRANSFORMING TERTIARY EDUCATION IN NIGERIA FOR SUSTAINABLE HUMAN AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE OKEWORO, STEPHEN NWALI. (PhD) ?DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY EDUCATION EBONYI STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, IKWO ?Abstract The fourth goal of tertiary education in Nigeria is to equip the beneficiaries with physical and intellectual skills that will enable them to survive in the society and also contribute towards national development. Regrettably, achievement of this goal is yet to become a reality in Nigerian. This is evident in the teeming population of graduates of tertiary institutions who lack the capabilities that can make them self-reliant. The causes of this ugly trend have been identified to include lack of skill-oriented education and a myriad of other factors that pose challenges to tertiary education. In the light of this back-drop, this paper tried to examine measures to be taken to transform education in Nigeria at the tertiary level for sustainable human and national development. The paper began by highlighting the concepts and goals of tertiary education and relevance of those goals to the needs of the Nigerian society. It went on to discuss inadequacies of tertiary education in Nigeria. In that light, conclusion was made followed by recommendations among which are that government should always consider first the factors that can enhance actualization of tertiary education policies before formulating such policies, ensuring that tertiary institutions operate in line with the stipulations of the regulatory bodies and increasing annual budgetary allocation to education. Keywords: Tertiary Education, Human development and Psychological Perspective This work may be accessed from here:?ijaes 7 THE PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF STREET HAWKING ON THE NIGERIAN CHILD, THE CASE OF ENUGU URBAN, ENUGU STATE REV. JAMES AJAGBO EKPE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS, EBONYI STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, IKWO. Abstract This papers surveyed the psychological effects of hawking on the life of the Nigerian child as seen in Enugu State, Nigeria. Hawking in Nigeria all over has come to be a common sight to behold. Both boys and girls are involved in the act of hawking. Hawking can be defined as the kind of trading whereby goods or wares are carried about from place to place soliciting for buyers. This paper discovered series of factors which are associated with this hydra headed monster which has adverse effect on the child in Nigeria. Some of the factors are economic, cultural as well as social. Some other factors which characterize this phenomenon is the background of the family. The study suggests that children should be withdrawn from the streets and sent back to school. Keywords: Hawking, Psychological effects and the Child. You may as well access the whole work here?ijaes 8 THE CHALLENGES OF SUSTAINABLE NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF FOREST RESOURCE IN NIGERIA EBURU, PETER INYA (Ph.D)1 OMEJE, VICTOR UCHECHUKWU 2 ?DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY EBONYI STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, IKWO 1&2 Abstract: Landscape deforestation and degradation in the Nigerian environment has been remarkable over the past decades, causing natural havoc and a fall in the agricultural production. This drop in production leads to a loss of income and lower standards of living to the rural farmers and nation at large. The Nigerian rural environment is dominantly made of ethnic groups involved in varied anthropic activities which result in the deteriorating of the forest resources with their attendant negative impacts. The man-induced ecological crisis has necessarily provoked a response from researchers and the academia on the possible ways of reversing the level of degradation on our environment. This paper examines the significance and challenges of natural resources management and the forest resource situation in Nigeria. It proposes various ways of promoting sustainable forest resource management in the country. Keyswords: Deforestation, Degradation, Forest, Environment, Rural and Sustainability. the entire work maybe accessed from here?ijaes 9 ANALYSIS OF DIURNAL VARIATION OF EARTH?GEOMAGNETIC FIELD COMPONENTS AT ADDIS-ABABA;?AN EQUATORIAL STATION IN AFRICA AGBO, G.A.,1 & IFEANYICHUKWU, B. J.,2 INDUSTRIAL? PHYSICS DEPARTMENT EBONYI? STATE UNIVERSITY ABAKALIKI.1&2 ?NWIFIOR, K3 PHYSICS DEPARTMENT, EBONYI STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION IKWO, EBONYI STATE. Abstract. Ten year analysis of earth geomagnetic field components has been studied using data from Addis-Ababa observatory. The result of the analysis shows that throughout the yean under study that there is maximum rise in amplitudes of (he H-Component at around the noon-time. The-morning decay rate was found to be greater than the evening decay rate. The diurnal variation of solar daily variation on both conditions followed the variation pattern of solar daily variation and can be attributed to the solar variability such as conductivity and winds structures in the atmosphere. The scattering of variation is more in disturbed conditions than in quiet conditions. This is obviously due to the ionospheric disturbances originating front external drives, such as space weather effects and a storms result of the variability of the night-time distant current. Keywords: Diurnal variation, Geomagnetic field components, equatorial station. This work may be accessed from?ijaes 10 ?AN EVALUATION OF LEARNING INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA EMMANUEL ETTA EKURI AND JUDITH TANO ARI? DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS, ?UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR, CALABAR Abstract This study is an evaluation of material resource-base as a factor in the implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study which involved all the 81 schools found in Calabar Education zone in Cross River State, utilized quantitative technique. Data was collected from 567 teachers (243 males and 324 females) drawn through a combination of stratified random sampling and purposive sampling techniques; using a questionnaire whose reliability ranged from .81 to .85. Frequency count, percentages and graphs were employed in summarizing and presenting the results. The findings revealed that most of the instructional materials and infrastructural facilities provisions are not available, hence impeding the objectives of UBE. It was recommended that government should maintain the policy of making adequate budget for funding UBE; Monitoring supervisors should be set up for operations; UBEC officials should endeavor to provide instructional materials and infrastructural facilities at upper basic level of education. Key words: Instructional materials, Infrastructural facilities, Universal Basic Education This whole work maybe accessed from here?ijaes 11222 IMPLICATIONS OF PSYCOLOGICAL CONTRACT BREACH ON ORGANIZATIONAL WORKFORCE PERFORMANCE IN EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY ? EZIKA GOODNESS AMAKA1 ? DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION?EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY ABAKALIKI ?PROF OKPATA O. FIDELIS POLITICAL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT ALEX-EKWUEME FEDERAL UNIVERSITY NDUFU-ALIKE, IKWO. ABSTRACT The increase in global competition has intensified economic fluctuations which have created an aura of uncertainty for employers and their employees.? One of the solutions for organizations to effectively and efficiently respond to these changes is to create a positive relationship between employers and employees thus the surmounting relevance of the issue of psychological contract to Researchers and Managers of Organizations. To the foregoing, this study is an attempt to critically examine the Implications of Psychological Contract breach and perceived organizational climate on Workforce Performance in Ebonyi State University Abakaliki. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design to analyze primary data drawn from administered structured questionnaire on a sample size of 346 as well as secondary data sourced from articles in learned journals, textbooks, internet materials etc. The social exchange theory is adopted as framework for focal analysis. In testing the research hypotheses, weighted mean and z-test statistical tools were utilized. The study revealed that the University?s failure to fulfill obligations associated with perceived mutual promises of psychological contract influences employee?s dysfunctional workplace behavior which invariably reduces workforce performance and inhibits the attainment of overall organizational goals and objectives. The study posit that for Ebonyi State University and Nigerian public organizations at large to meet and/or maintain the ever increasing demands of our highly competitive globalized market, there is need to embrace sound human resources management practices to frame attainable psychological contract and develop effective strategies for managing its breach/violation. Keywords: Psychological Contract, Psychological Contract Breach and Organizational Climate. ?To obtain the complete work please go here:?OKPATA 4 JUNE 1 origi ?